Journal of Advanced Sciences <div class="row"> <div class="col-lg-7"> <div class="service-details-inner"> <p>Journal of Advanced Sciences (JOAS) is an open access, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary and fully refereed journal focusing on theories, researches, scientific methods and applications in all research areas. It is an international scientific journal that aims to promote research in all the research fields like Engineering, Science, Technology, Education, Management, Medical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Social sciences, Health Care, Arts &amp; Humanities and many more. JOAS Publication is indexed in Google Scholar.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="services-details-img mt-4"> </div> en-US Sun, 09 Jul 2023 15:02:32 +0000 OJS 60 The association between maternal oral bacteria with early childhood caries development in their children <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the association between maternal oral bacteria and the development of early childhood caries (ECC) in their children over a two-year period.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cohort of mothers and their children was recruited during the prenatal period. Maternal oral samples were collected to assess the presence and abundance of specific cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The children were followed up at regular intervals from birth until two years of age. Oral examinations were conducted to assess the presence and severity of ECC. Statistical analyses was performed to determine the association between maternal oral bacteria and ECC development in their children.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 98 mother-child pairs, with an average follow-up period of 24 months. The results demonstrated a significant association between maternal oral bacteria and ECC development in their children. Maternal colonization of cariogenic bacteria, particularly S. mutans, was found to be a strong predictor of ECC development in their offspring, even after adjusting for confounding factors such as maternal oral hygiene, socioeconomic status, and child's diet. Higher levels of S. mutans in maternal oral samples were associated with an increased risk of ECC in children at two years of age.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This prospective study provides evidence for an association between maternal oral bacteria and the development of early childhood caries in their children over a two-year period. Maternal colonization of cariogenic bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, was found to be a significant risk factor for ECC development. These findings highlight the importance of maternal oral health and the need for preventive measures targeting maternal oral bacteria to reduce the transmission and subsequent development of ECC in children. Early interventions, including oral hygiene education and preventive strategies, should be implemented to promote maternal oral health and improve oral health outcomes in children.</p> Shweta Singh, Neerja Singh, Sahana S Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Maternal Oral Health Initiatives: Impact on Early Childhood Caries Prevention from Pregnancy to Postnatal Periods <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early childhood caries (ECC) poses a significant public health challenge, necessitating innovative preventive strategies. This prospective study investigates the impact of maternal oral health initiatives initiated during pregnancy and their sustained influence through the postnatal period on ECC prevention.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cohort of 312 pregnant women was randomly assigned to intervention (n=156) and control (n=156) groups. The intervention included structured oral health education during pregnancy. Postnatally, maternal oral health knowledge and practices were assessed. ECC outcomes in infants were monitored for 12 months. SPSS 26.0 was used for analysing data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Maternal education during pregnancy resulted in a significant reduction in ECC incidence and severity among infants in the intervention group compared to controls. Sustained maternal oral health knowledge correlated positively with improved postnatal practices, including increased prevalence of breastfeeding, contributing to lower ECC rates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Maternal oral health initiatives, spanning from pregnancy to the postnatal period, demonstrate a substantial impact on ECC prevention. Targeted education during pregnancy and continuous support postnatally significantly reduce ECC prevalence. These findings advocate for the integration of maternal oral health programs into routine prenatal care to optimize oral health outcomes for both mothers and infants.</p> Shweta Singh, Neerja Singh, Sahana S Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PLATELET RICH FIBRIN- A Natural Regenerative Biomaterial <p>PRF is a blood-derived autologous product, rich in platelets, leukocytes, growth factors, and fibrin matrix, obtained through a simplified centrifugation process. Its unique composition endows PRF with remarkable regenerative potential, making it a versatile tool in various medical fields. Clinical applications of PRF span across dentistry, orthopedics, dermatology, and beyond. In dentistry, it aids in bone grafting, tissue regeneration, and wound healing, enhancing postoperative outcomes. In orthopedics, PRF injections accelerate tissue repair and reduce pain in musculoskeletal disorders. Dermatologists employ PRF for facial rejuvenation, wound healing, and hair restoration, capitalizing on its natural growth factors. The future of PRF holds promising avenues in tissue engineering, chronic wound management, and sports medicine. Its safety and efficacy, coupled with minimal risk of adverse reactions, make it an attractive therapeutic option. PRF represents a breakthrough in regenerative medicine, offering personalized, minimally invasive solutions for a spectrum of clinical challenges. Ongoing research and innovation in PRF applications hold significant potential to transform patient care across diverse medical&nbsp;disciplines.</p> Sarbada Soundarya, Juweria Wajid, Shreya Joshi, Purva Mathur, M. S. Mugil, Yeluguri Prathyusha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Sun, 29 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Disease progression and patterns of recurrence of Oral Cancer to various treatment modalities – an observational study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Oral cancer is a significant public health concern with diverse treatment modalities and high rates of recurrence. Understanding the disease progression and patterns of recurrence is crucial for optimizing treatment strategies and improving patient outcomes. This observational study aimed to investigate the disease progression and patterns of recurrence in oral cancer patients treated with various modalities.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from medical records of oral cancer patients treated at multiple health care institutions between March 2022 to February 2023 across Bhopal city. Demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, treatment modalities, and long-term follow-up data were collected. The rates and patterns of recurrence, including local, regional, and distant recurrences were analyzed..SPSS 25.0 was used to analyse the data</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 237 patients with oral cancer. The majority of patients were males (64.9%) and presented with squamous cell carcinoma (81.8%). The most common site of oral cancer was tongue. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality, with adjuvant therapies, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, utilized in majority of cases. The overall recurrence rate was 62.4%. &nbsp;Local recurrence occurred in 27.3% of patients, regional recurrence in 59.1% and distant metastasis in 13.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings highlight the importance of comprehensive surgical resection, the need for effective adjuvant therapies, and the challenges in achieving long-term disease control. The identified recurrence patterns and prognostic factors can guide treatment decision-making and risk stratification. Prospective studies and multi-institutional collaborations are warranted to validate these findings and advance the management of oral cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Charu Dixit, Priya Sharma , Aniket Prachand , Shubham Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Sun, 09 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 TO ASSESS THE ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY OF PALLOR IN THE ORAL CAVITY AND PALPEBRAL CONJUNCTIVA TO CLINICALLY DIAGNOSE ANAEMIA IN MIDDLE AGED FEMALE PATIENTS BY USING HAEMOGLOBIN AS THE REFERENCE STANDARD <h1>Aim: To accurately determine the reliability of pallor on the dorsal surface of tongue and/or palpebral conjunctiva to diagnose anaemia in middle aged female patients, by using haemoglobin as the reference standard. To correlate pallor with different grades of anaemia according to WHO criteria. Objective: A cost effective chair side clinical observation of pallor to diagnose anaemia in middle aged female patients and to provide counselling thereby reducing the prevalence of anaemia and its associated morbidities, especially in poor resource setting. Method: Between 1<sup>st </sup>June 2022 to 30<sup>th</sup> Aug 2022, all female dental outpatients between 40-65 years of age were prospectively examined. Among these subjects,100 female patients with pallor on the dorsal surface of tongue and/or palpebral conjunctiva who met the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, provided informed consent, and who had undergone blood test within one day of clinical pallor detection were enrolled in the study. Based on haemoglobin levels, anaemia was divided into mild, moderate, and severe according to WHO criterion (Hb: &lt;12g/dl). Anaemia was divided into mild (Hb: 11-11.99 g/dl), moderate (Hb: 7-10.99 g/dl), and severe (Hb: &lt; 7g/dl). Data was expressed as frequency and percentages. Result: In the present study, 82% of subjects with either conjunctival pallor or tongue pallor or both were anaemic with laboratory proven haemoglobin levels &lt; 12 g/dl which was found to be statistically significant. 14.6% subjects were diagnosed with mild anaemia, 51.2% with moderate anaemia, and 34.1% with severe anaemia.&nbsp; Among patients with mild and moderate anaemia, conjunctival pallor out performed tongue pallor whereas in subjects with severe anaemia, tongue pallor outperformed conjunctival pallor.</h1> <h1>Detecting pallor in a female patient is a dependable sign of anaemia. Furthermore, identifying tongue surface pallor is a strong signal of severe anaemia in female patients whereas conjunctival pallor is a good indicator for mild and moderate anaemia. The effective implementation of dietary counselling has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of anaemia.</h1> Naveen Shetty, Sandeep Pagare, Bhavika Pol Vhatkar, Stutee Ashok Beriwal , Shweta Rode, Chintan Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative evaluation of efficacy of 2% lidocaine and 4% Articaine in paediatric patients during Needle insertion by Conventional and Alternative technique of local Anasthesia <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Local anesthesia is an essential part of many dental procedures, particularly in pediatric patients who may be fearful or anxious during treatment. Two of the most commonly used local anesthetics are 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine, but there is ongoing debate about which one is more effective. Additionally, the technique used for administering local anesthesia can also impact pain perception during needle insertion. This topic aims to compare the efficacy of 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine, as well as to evaluate the pain perception of pediatric patients during needle insertion using both conventional and alternative techniques of local anesthesia.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> A total of 180 pediatric patients were included in the study, and they were randomly assigned to receive either 2% lidocaine or 4% articaine using either conventional or alternative techniques. The study included pediatric patients aged 4-12 years, who required dental treatment involving local anesthesia assigned to the following groups. Group 1: 2% lidocaine with conventional technique of local anesthesia; Group 2: 2% lidocaine with alternative technique of local anesthesia; Group 3: 4% articaine with conventional technique of local anesthesia; Group 4: 4% articaine with alternative technique of local anesthesia. Outcome assessed were onset and duration of anesthesia.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> &nbsp;The results showed that the use of 4% articaine was more effective in increasing the duration of anesthesia and a faster onset &nbsp;than 2% lidocaine, regardless of the technique used. Additionally, the alternative technique was found to be less painful than the conventional technique.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> This study provides important insights into the use of local anesthesia in pediatric patients and highlights the potential benefits of using 4% articaine and alternative techniques for reducing pain and discomfort during needle insertion.</p> Parimala Kulkarni, Rajesh Sharma, Manohar Bhat Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ORAL HISTOPATHOLOGY- A REVIEW <p>Since last few years, there has been a significant rise in the development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) tools in the field of pathology. Artificial intelligence (AI) is basically a field of research in which technology is incorporated to mimic human intelligence. These are empowered through different learning methods like machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL). Machine and deep learning are the techniques which need data for working and that data is supervised to extract the probable outcomes. The application and use of Artificial intelligence is extended to a large extent. Diagnostic ability and outcome of the doctors can be compromised due to various factors like heavy workload, complexity of work and potential fatigue which can be encountered by AI tools. These tools reduce the workload and enhances the working efficiency. This paper focuses on the importance of artificial intelligence and discusses the recent advances in AI and deep learning in the field of oral histopathology.</p> Arkaprovo Roy, Pooja Verma, Saptarshi Talukdar, Indranil Choudhary Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Biomarkers for assessing disease progression and treatment outcomes of oral submucous fibrosis <p>Biomarkers for assessing disease progression and treatment outcomes of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) have gained significant attention in recent years. This review provides an overview of the current research on biomarkers in OSMF and their potential implications in clinical practice.</p> <p>The review focuses on the different categories of biomarkers that have shown promise in assessing disease progression and treatment outcomes in OSMF. Epithelial dysplasia markers, including Ki-67, p53, and cyclin D1, are discussed in relation to dysplastic changes observed in OSMF. Inflammatory and immune markers, such as cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators, are explored for their role in OSMF progression. The dysregulation of extracellular matrix remodelling is highlighted, with a discussion on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as potential biomarkers.</p> <p>Furthermore, the review delves into biomarkers for treatment response and outcome prediction. Collagen turnover markers, including pro-collagen type I and MMPs, are examined as indicators of collagen synthesis and degradation. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), are evaluated for their ability to reflect oxidative stress and antioxidant status. The review also touches upon the potential of epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, in predicting treatment response and prognosis in OSMF.</p> <p>Additionally, the review explores the use of imaging techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence imaging, and confocal microscopy, for assessing structural changes and biomarker expression in OSMF. It discusses the potential of molecular imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and molecular MRI, for visualizing specific biomarkers in OSMF. Moreover, the review highlights the importance of genomics approaches, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in identifying novel biomarkers and unraveling molecular pathways in OSMF.</p> <p>We emphasize the potential of biomarkers in improving patient care and management in OSMF. It acknowledges the challenges in biomarker validation, standardization, and cost-effectiveness for widespread clinical use. The review calls for further research in emerging areas, such as non-coding RNAs, microRNA panels, and multi-modal biomarker approaches, to enhance our understanding of OSMF and facilitate personalized treatment strategies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Charu Dixit, Priya Sharma , Aniket Prachand , Shubham Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Sun, 09 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis of Oral Cancer - A Brief Review <p>World Health Organization has considered the cancer as the 6<sup>th</sup> most potential reason for mortality all over the world. Even with all the advancement and development of technology in the field of medicine the cancer remains one of the most fatal diseases all over the world. Among these malignancies Oral Cancers are the most common worldwide. In malignant tissue there is a significant change in the bioimpedance, this change is as a result of increased water and salt content in the cells, change in membrane permeability, altered packing density and orientation of cells. Bioimpedance is the ability of organic tissue to oppose an external electric current. This review provides a brief knowledge about the bioelectrical impedance in oral cancers.</p> Kumarjyoti chatterjee Kumarjyoti, Arkaprovo Roy , Pooja Verma , Saptarshi Talukdar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Advanced Sciences Sun, 08 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000