• ISSN 1908-3238 (Online)



Authors: Rahul Kakkar, Sumeet Goyal, Joginder Singh, Dishant Khosla, Sohni Singh

For the future technologies in which the devices and circuits are integrating more, low power consuming devices are needed. Mostly the reduction of power dissipation work is concentrated on switching and leakage current. However, sub threshold current is also a big factor which leads to power consumption especially for memories. In this paper, leakage power of SRAM memory cell is reduced by power gated sleepy stack structure which leads to lesser power dissipation. The power dissipation is reduced to 226 μW with proposed technique compared with power dissipation of conventional 6T SRAM cell which had 740 μW. With lesser power dissipation the circuit can have more battery backup and lesser heat emission



Authors: Dr. Hiroj Bagde, Dr. Sudhir Dole, Dr. Ashwini Dhopte

The oral cavity gives the impression of being an open ecosystem, with a dynamic equilibrium between the entry of microbes, colonization methods, and host defences designed to remove them: the oral mucosa, the gingiva, the gingival crevices, the gingival crevices, the gingival Bacteria need to attach themselves to either hard tooth surfaces or epithelial surfaces in order to prevent eradication. Oral caries, periodontal disease, and peri-implantitis are among of the most frequent oral diseases, and the production and growth of oral biofilms, as well as the inside selection of certain microbes, have all been found to be connected with these conditions. The eradication of the biofilm by mechanical means and the use of antibiotic disinfectants or other types of antibiotics as an adjuvant treatment have been the traditional approaches to periodontal care. Ozone, which has the chemical formula O3, is a triatomic molecule that is composed of three atoms of oxygen. The use of ozone in dentistry and medicine has been advised for the treatment of 260 various diseases and conditions. The ozone therapy has proven to be more helpful than the currently available conventional therapeutic modalities. These modalities typically involve a conservative and minimally intrusive approach to dental care. The demonstration of the molecular processes behind ozone's practical functions is of great help to the field of dentistry.



Authors: Dr. Ravi Kiran, Dr. Kishan Kumar Avula, Dr. Niharika Bammidi

The incidence of chronic kidney disease is increasing and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Periodontitis has been found to contribute to systemic inflammatory burden which may have significant effects on the medical management of the end stage renal disease patients. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the periodontal status of patients receiving hemodialysis from Krishna District Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 subjects, 100 subjects each in dialysis, and healthy group was conducted. Periodontal examination included simplified oral hygiene index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss and periodontal screening and recording index, are evaluated in both the groups. Results: In the present study, the periodontal parameters were elevated in the dialysis group as compared to the control group and the results were statistically significant. Investigation of the impact of duration of dialysis on the periodontal tissues of patients with CRF showed that higher levels of clinical parameters in the group of patients undergoing dialysis for more than one year but with-out any significant difference with group of patients on dialysis duration of less than one year. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate significant association between the prevalence of severe periodontitis in hemodialysis patients compared to healthy individuals because of the negligence of oral hygiene.



Authors: Dr. Deepti Patel, Dr. Nikita Agrawal

The incidence of OMLs is thought to extend with age, because of physiological changes within the oral cavity and also because of the sustained impact of risk habits. Other predisposing factors within the elderly include decreased saliva flow and long-lasting effects of local and systemic factors, like alcohol intake, smoking, snuff and drug use. The importance to differentiate normal conditions from pathological lesions lies within the proven fact that the normal variations don't need any medical intervention. Oral mucosa may be a harbor to several such normal variations which can confuse the diagnosis among the budding dentists. So, proper knowledge about their existence, prevalence and features are very important. The search of the literature revealed no such studies in Chhattisgarh Population, warranting a quick need to carry out a study to understand the prevalence of oral mucosal normal variations in the geriatric Chhattisgarh Population. AIM- The aim of our study is to search out the prevalence and to achieve more knowledge about oral normal soft tissue variations in the geriatric Chhattisgarh Population and possibly identify new avenues of research in this area. METHOD- It is a Prospective and observational correlation study, performed in an exceedingly period of two years from 2015-2017 within the Department Of Oral Medicine and Radiology at Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute, Rajnandgaon, (Chhattisgarh), India. It included the patients of age 60 years and above of Chhattisgarh Population. RESULT- The most prevalent normal variation in this study was found to be fissured tongue 46% followed by coated tongue (20%), depapilation of tongue (20.3%), Melanosis (9.7%), lingual varicose (1.4%), leukoedema (1.1%), Fordyce's granules (0.7%) and geographic tongue (0.14%). CONCLUSION- The present study renders sufficient information about the epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal normal variation in the geriatric population which may prove valuable in the planning of future oral health strategies of this group of the Indian population. This will further enhance community programs to educate the elderly population, along with the younger generation to get the elderly screened for any deviation from these variations or any oral mucosal lesions by availing adequate clinical and pathological laboratory facilities, which will ensure a good quality of life in this population of interest.



Authors: Dr. Vinay Kharsan, Dr. Ramnik Singh Madan, Dr Swatantra Shrivastav, Dr Prakriti Yadav

Gunshot injuries involving the head and neck confer a high potential for profound morbidity and mortality rates by damaging vital neurovascular structures, including the central nervous system, carotid arteries, and jugular veins. The main manners of firearm-related death comprise homicide, suicide, and accidental events, the rates of which largely vary depending on region and country. Although a bullet is commonly thought to travel through the body in a straight line, a few patients with head and neck gunshot injuries who survived without lethal organ damage thanks to a nonlinear bullet trajectory have been reported. However, there is no report of a patient who survived a gunshot wound transversely penetrating the entire neck across its deep structures. India’s rates of violence vary greatly and in a majority of firearm related injuries illegal, unlicensed weapons are used. As in 2006, India was home to roughly 40 million civilian firearms, out of an estimated 650 million civilian owned guns then believed to exist worldwide. But only 6.3 million (just over 15%) are licensed. The unpredictable nature of the bullet also emphasizes the importance of projecting the missile trajectory. A missile trajectory-tracing software program could be an important tool in the diagnosis and management of patients with bullet injuries.

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